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Since the late seventies, the Volkswagen Golf platform has been an excellent fit for just about every household. The GTI variant shifted the humble Golf from pedestrian to performance and created its own segment that remains a hotly contested market today. These days, the Golf R reigns supreme over its namesake, offering a suitable package for nearly everyone; however, in the waning days of the gasoline engine, the future of the Golf and its performance variants is uncertain. Volkswagen has already pulled the standard Golf from American shores, leaving us with only the GTI and Golf R, so its days are clearly numbered in the US.  

With that in mind, the older Golf R generations currently offer low-buck entry points into the VW tuner scene while retaining all of the daily-driver benefits of a normal Golf. They’re fantastic platforms for anything you’d want to do, whether it’s daily driving, taking it to car shows, or hitting the track with M3s and 911s. The current Mk8 generation is the best there’s been, but at nearly $50,000, it’s well beyond the reach of many. Luckily, the previous generations offer reliable, modifiable, and accessible platforms.

Mk6 Golf R

Hitting our shores for the 2012 model year only, the Mk6 Golf R was partially the first of its kind while also carrying on a legacy. The advent of the AWD performance Golf in America began with the Mk4 R32 in 2004. It was the first to sport a Haldex AWD system mated to a 3.2-liter VR6 and was wrapped in unique bumpers with an iconic Deep Blue Pearl paint. Jumping forward to the Mk6, the VR6 was retired in favor of a more powerful engine, but the spirit of the earlier cars remained; the Golf R was the hot-hatch benchmark everyone was fighting against. 

VW Mk6 Golf R Front

The Mk6 carried over the PQ35 platform that originally underpinned the Mk5. It was a revelation when introduced, lending the Golf a tight and sharp ride that delivered feedback in spades. The MacPherson struts up front and multi-link in the rear made for a very competent ride on the street while providing adjustability to allow owners to tune them for the track. All kinds of aftermarket parts are available for the Mk6, from simple spring and strut kits to remote reservoir coilovers and air strut systems. The beauty of the platform is also the fact that so many have already developed it. At this point, you won’t have to science out which parts are right for you; instead, you can look it all up on Volkswagen message boards or ask your local VW specialist shop. 

Under the hood of every Mk6 Golf R is a variant of the EA113 engine family, codenamed CDLF. It’s a 2.0-liter, turbocharged, direct-injected, four-cylinder originally found in the Mk5 GTI but specifically modified for the Golf R. Starting with a reinforced engine block, VW lowered the compression with new pistons, slapped on a larger K04 turbocharger, turned up the peak boost pressure to 1.2 Bar, and dropped on a new cylinder head to create the most powerful Golf at that point. The 256 hp and 243 lb-ft of torque were more than any other US-market competitor, too, just edging out Ford’s Focus ST. Today, an upper-level Camry makes more power, but the Golf R has the potential to be pushed much farther. Aftermarket performance engine parts are available from everyone and can help you match modern performance-car figures without too much work. 

Every Mk6 Golf R puts its power down through a six-speed manual transmission and a Haldex-derived AWD system. The manual transmission is based on the 02Q, a familiar and tested gearbox in VW’s arsenal. With a stronger clutch, they have no problem holding the power that the EA113 is capable of. You’ll also have the torque advantage at all four wheels when putting that power down. The Golf R’s party piece has always been its Haldex-based AWD, and the fourth-generation system in the Mk6 is no slouch. Earlier revisions were reactive, but the Gen 4 was the first to use its sensors to detect when slip might occur and engage its AWD capabilities beforehand. You’ll feel the Haldex benefits when riding through the back roads or launching away from a light.

Volkswagen Mk6 Golf R Rear

You’ll also likely feel pretty comfortable inside the cabin as you shove yourself and your three passengers into the backs of their seats. The Golf R is more than just a performance upgrade over the GTI; it also comes with various interior improvements. High-bolstered, black-leather-clad seats keep the forward occupants glued in place while the driver grips a leather-wrapped three-spoke wheel. Other bits, like the shift knob and steering wheel, wear matching black leather, but most other surfaces are soft-touch plastic. 

Externally, the Golf R sets itself apart from the GTI with various unique parts, like the redesigned front bumper. Chiseled intake grilles, LED running lights, and splitter-like bumper corners give the R a distinctly aggressive look without attracting the attention of a winged STi. Down the side, black mirror caps and R-exclusive “Talladega” wheels attract most of the attention, though the star is the skirt carrying the aggressive bumper corners down the side of the chassis. Body lines are much smoother at the rear, but a lower bumper cut-out section emphasizes the twin center-mounted tailpipes and small diffuser. 

It’s a great-looking car with performance chops to match and a chassis that can haul things and stuff simultaneously. Suppose there were any downsides, it’d be the lack of availability. The Mk6 Golf R was offered in the US for just one model year. It isn’t the rarest VW out there, but quality examples may be tough to find near you. Then there’s the transmission. If you can’t drive a stick, you can’t have one unless you somehow import a Euro-market example with a DSG.


Mk7 Golf R

The PQ35 platform that underpinned the Mk6 was on its last legs by the time the Golf R debuted. Three years after, in 2015, VW was ready with the Mk7 Golf based around an all-new platform. Years of development set engineers up with exactly what they needed to design a highly shared but ultra-focused set of suspension and chassis architecture for the Golf range and other small VAG models. Dubbed MQB, that platform was a huge success for Volkswagen and the Golf range itself, with many calling it the best there’d been. The Golf R was a direct beneficiary of the MQB, and its underpinnings allowed the ultimate hot hatch to have its performance ability match its civilized qualities. 

Volkswagen Mk7 Golf R Front

Improvements over the Mk6 were everywhere, though the engine compartment is where the fun is. Gone was the EA113 engine from the previous gen, and in its place was the EA888 Gen.3. On paper, they’re both turbocharged 2.0-liter four-cylinders, but the more modern engine is capable of much more performance. An IHI IS38 twin-scroll turbocharger, better internal components, and advancements in engine controls were all a factor in the Golf R’s peak power output of 292 hp and 280 lb-ft of torque. Behind that engine is either a six-speed manual or DSG transmission; VW wasn’t going to get caught offering one transmission choice again. Both transmission choices are paired with the Gen 5 Haldex system, although BorgWarner took over development. The much revised AWD coupler and controller were smaller, lighter, and simpler than its predecessors, reacting far quicker than any before. 

Keeping the chassis engaged through the corners is the MQB underpinnings. In standard fashion, the Mk7 wears a MacPherson strut up front and a multi-link at the rear that positions the chassis 24mm lower than the standard GTI. Standard dampers were the passive kind, but VW’s Dynamic Chassis Control dampers, adaptive adjustable units, were available as an option. VW also fitted their XDS+ to both axles as if that weren’t enough. It’s a brake-operated torque vectoring system like many performance cars of today have, and it plays a huge role in dialing out any understeer you might typically encounter. 

Volkswagen Mk7 Golf R Rear

Cosmetically, the Mk7 differentiated itself like past Golf Rs. Larger and more aggressive intakes in the front bumper gave away the sporting potential, with body lines carrying down the lower portion of the body to the rear bumper. Back there, the familiar bumper with twin-center pipes and diffuser was present. Headlights and other bits remained the same shape as the GTI, but LEDs were used to set them apart. Inside the cabin, GTI owners would feel familiar as the layout and features are nearly identical, save for the better quality materials in the R. Leather trim with accenting blue stitching makes up the seats, steering wheel, and a few other spots. At the same time, soft-touch plastics do the rest of the heavy lifting. Distinguishing accents and badging are present but less frequently than in other R models. 

Volkswagen sold the Golf R between 2015 and 2017 before giving it a facelift. The updates were largely cosmetic, but a few performance improvements made the cut. Befitting the Mk7.5 are revised LED headlights, taillights, and a redesigned front bumper. Interior updates were similar; small design changes with more advanced electrical components. The instrument cluster became customizable to driver preferences, while the new infotainment system featured a better operating system and a much larger screen, growing from 5.8” to 8”. Drivetrain and performance options remained the same, but the six-speed DSG was swapped for a more robust seven-speed unit. 


Mk6 V.S. Mk7

Both the Mk6 and Mk7 generations offer performance, useability, and reliability in a small and economical package. There will be noticeable technological differences due to their manufacturing dates, but other areas should remain relatively similar. If you’re searching for your next sleeper build or are looking for a fast daily, read along to see which generation is best for you. 



Under the hood of both cars is a 2.0-liter, turbocharged, inline-four-cylinder. The Mk6’s EA113 is a little old-fashioned, using both a cam belt and chain for its timing system, a single-scroll turbocharger, and variable cam timing on the intake side only. The Gen.3 EA888 features variable cam timing on both camshafts, a single chain for timing, and a modern turbocharger. Although there are other differences, the lack of modern tech on the EA113 doesn’t make it any less capable. 

Volkswagen Mk6 Golf R EA113 Engine

Tuners have had no problem pushing out more power with the EA113, and the version found in the Golf R is the strongest there is. It was equipped with the biggest camshafts of any version, received a stronger rotating assembly in the form of uprated wrist pins, rings, and rods, and featured cross-bolted main-bearing caps. It isn’t unheard of to find one pushing out nearly 500 hp with a tune and a bunch of bolt-on parts. Once you open up the engine for aftermarket internals, you can safely tack on another few hundred ponies. Volkswagen built the engine to take the abuse, and its use in the Scirocco GT24 and Audi TT RS VLN cars is a testament to that.

On the other hand, the EA888 is no slouch, either. Its nearly 300 hp was the most ever produced by a Golf, and it was a pretty conservative figure. The stock IS38 turbocharger is a mono-scroll, but it uses a partially divided exhaust housing to improve response times for a wider powerband. However, the overall power potential from their respective stock turbochargers is very close, about 350 wheel hp. The real advantages of the EA888 come from its more advanced mechanisms during daily driving. Finger-follower cam actuation, a lighter rotating assembly, the cylinder-head-integrated exhaust manifold, variable cam timing, variable cam lift, and the revised PCV system all make for a smoother and more efficient engine. Mk7 owners have reported above 30mpg on complete tanks, while the average Mk6 sits closer to 27. 

When it comes down to reliability, the EA888 takes the crown, but only slightly. The EA113 engines are really tough and only have a few trouble spots that affect them, but they will need addressing. High-pressure fuel pump cam followers are flat tappets instead of the roller followers used in the Mk7. Over time, the tappet wears away and, in catastrophic cases, can break and send metallic bits throughout the cylinder head. Although VW doesn’t consider these a service item, you should check them about every 30,000 miles for wear. Adding in a good oil additive like MoS2 will extend its life. Then you have to worry about the balance shaft assembly. Connected with the oil pump drive, improper services and extended oil change intervals will gum up and seize the balance shaft, causing a catastrophic break and significant damage. Lastly, there’s the cam timing chain tensioner. They do last beyond 100,000 miles but will need to be changed at some point. Failure to do so will result in a wrecked cylinder head and rotating assembly. 

Volkswagen Mk7 Golf R Engine

There really aren’t any major issues with the EA888 that could end in catastrophic damage. Though, there are plenty of smaller things that come up. After decades of development, the PCV system remains a sticking point for the Golf. It is the best we’ve seen, but the same diaphragm failures of earlier models persist. When those fail and are left on the engine, oil leaks develop. Although there are a few places leaks will come from, the rear main seal is definitely one of them. The seal was a poor design from VW, and various aftermarket kits are available to swap to a more traditional setup because leaks are so common. You’ll also have to worry about the water pump. In an effort to reduce weight and cost, the water pump assembly is made from plastic and is prone to cracking from constant heat cycling. If it isn’t that, oil leaks from the upper timing cover caused by a failing PCV will cause the water pump’s o-rings to swell and leak. Lastly, be aware of possible spark plug and ignition coil faults.  



Behind their respective engines sit a nearly identical driveline. Offered solely in the Mk6 was a six-speed manual transmission. Specifically, it was the 02Q, a long-time go-to for Volkswagen. The cable-shifted gearbox could take the power of the Golf R and some without any fuss for the driver, making it the best choice. After a decade, Mk6 Golf R owners have enjoyed the reliable service of the 02Q without much to worry about. A weak OEM clutch was the limiting factor for the gearbox; once gone, owners could push them well beyond the factor power levels. 

Volkswagen Mk7 Golf R Haldex

As well as the 02Q performed for VW, it didn’t stop the manufacturing giant from putting their trusty gearbox through another revision. Debuting only in the Mk7 Golf R was the 0FB, featuring small updates to the bell housing spacing and design. Save for those casting differences and the clutch release bearing’s new plastic shim, it’s mechanically identical to the 02Q. Like in the Mk6 R, the limiting factor for the gearbox in the Mk7 was a clutch made from marshmallows. Stuff in a tougher friction disk, and the 0FB has no issue hanging onto 400-wheel-horsepower. At over 400 wheel hp and torque, other components in the driveline may begin to falter, but both gearboxes should be able to handle them. Of course, excessive launches and aggressive shifting significantly affect reliability and service life. Beyond driver error or mistreatment, there are a few mechanical gremlins to be cautious about. 

Volkswagen, for whatever reason, built their gearboxes with rivets holding together critical areas. The shift fork is one of those areas and frequently sees those rivets break or loosen to where shifts are vague and difficult, if not impossible, to select. Older Mk6 boxes can develop issues with the rear input shaft bearing, eventually eating into the transmission case and causing a few significant problems. Other than that, though, stick in a better clutch and enjoy your unrivaled driver engagement.

Available only in the Mk7 was Volkswagen’s favorite performance transmission, the DSG. Since its introduction over a decade ago, much has been said about the DSG. Pre-facelift models received the DQ250, a six-speed version. The later Mk7s, referred to as the Mk7.5, received the DQ381, a stronger, seven-speed variant. Either way, a DSG gives you a fantastic two-pedal option without sacrificing fun. In manual mode, shifts are crisp and quick, giving off a funky noise affectionately known as the “DSG fart.” In their automatic setting, they function like a traditional automatic, shifting up and down as seen fit by the aggression of your right foot, and will help deliver over 30mpg on the highway. 

The DSGs aren’t as reliable as manuals but aren’t an unreliable choice. Their vast complexity gives them a few more places to fail, but they aren’t a guarantee. Most commonly, owners can experience hard or rough shifting from unserviced gearboxes or malfunctioning mechatronic units. Servicing is critical to these units, and reliability is no longer guaranteed without proper care. Other problems can arise from the mechatronic unit. The mechatronic unit is the brain and actuating system inside the transmission. Both electrical and mechanical failures can be the cause, but they aren’t typical of the average Golf R; consider it an uncommon fault. Lastly, extensively modified examples can quickly wear on their clutches. Especially in the DQ250 variant, increased engine torque can wear the friction plates beyond use, causing a necessary replacement. Stronger, aftermarket discs are available but aren’t cheap. 

Either way, you’re looking at a solid choice of transmission. However, there’s another component to the driveline to consider: the Haldex-based AWD system. It’s what puts the R in Golf R, among other things, separating it from every other non-wagon Golf. Both generations are beneficiaries, but they use two different generations to get the job done. 


The earlier Mk6 chassis uses the Haldex Gen 4 system, the first of the proactive Haldex units. Whereas previous models needed to lose traction to gain it at all four wheels, the Golf R could engage its rear-drive as it was happening or earlier. Slimmed down from previous revisions, it’s the first to use an electric pump to solely provide hydraulic pressure to the wet clutch packs. The later Mk7 chassis got the revised Gen 5 system, which BorgWarner engineered. Reaction times were up, and moving parts were significantly reduced. It’s by far the lightest of units, but that doesn’t mean it’s any more or less prone to problems. 

The Gen 4 and 5 systems are mechanically different but generally possess the same sticking points. They’ll commonly experience issues regarding the pump and fluid flow. Worn clutch material regularly blocks pump filters leading to more expensive issues, so servicing the units on time or early is critical to success. Their control units are also a point of failure, either developing software issues or falling victim to corrosion or burnt PCB boards. Other trouble areas can develop, especially on modified examples, but generally speaking, the Haldex systems should remain major-issue-free with regular services.  



The Mk6 and Mk7, while underpinned by distinctly different generations of Volkswagen platforms, share the same basic suspension architecture. A MacPherson strut and lower control arm make up the front suspension, while a set of arms completes the multi-link design at the rear. Passive Sachs dampers are the standard equipment. The springs paired with the dampers are firmer and shorter than their GTI counterparts for a better look and improved performance. Aiding suspension roll characteristics are a pair of sway bars with one on either axle. Overall, it’s their tried and true design, and to their credit, one that works very well.

VW Mk7 Golf R Struts

If that doesn’t sound fancy, that’s because it isn’t. The Golf R didn’t need double wishbones with electromagnetic shocks. Its small footing but relatively long wheelbase and light curb weight meant that a well-devised architecture would get the job done. Look around, and you’ll find that more than most other small VW and Audi products use very similar components. The same can be said about the two Golf Rs; they have similar components but aren’t identical. 

Up front, the Mk7’s rear control arm bushing reverts to the design shared with the Mk4 Golf, while the Mk6 uses one shared only with the Mk5. On the Mk7, those control arms mount to an aluminum steering knuckle, unlike the Mk6, which uses steel knuckles. Conversely, the Mk6’s aluminum front subframe was replaced by a steel unit. Out back, minor revisions were made to the various arms for geometry changes, but all retain a nearly identical shape. The biggest difference comes from the lower shock mount; Mk6s have their shock bored directly to the knuckle, whereas the Mk7 has it secured to the lower control arm. 

VW Mk7 Golf R Trailing Arms

Despite the minuscule differences, the Mk6 and Mk7 are distinctly different-feeling cars. The leap the Mk7 chassis made over its predecessor in terms of stiffness needs to be experienced on the road. Owners of both have reported significantly fewer creaks and rattles from the Mk7 with a ride and feel that is tight, refined, and direct. While not a lousy chassis, the Mk6 is less refined and closer to a Japanese tuner car. NVH and body control at higher speedshighway and abovewill be harsher in the older chassis by a noticeable margin. 

If chassis differences stopped there, the two generations would be pretty close, but they don’t. Volkswagen’s Dynamic Chassis Control was an option on the Mk7s and standard on the Mk7.5. As it’s known, DCC is an adaptive suspension package that utilizes accelerometers and various other sensors to intuitively change the damping characteristics of the suspension on the fly. On top of that, it also adds three damper settings for drivers to choose from. The DCC works with the Golf R’s standard Drive Mode Selection, which sets different parameters for engine response and transmission shift points. 

However, the Mk6 got some electronic goodies, too. The R received XDS, a pseudo-torque-vectoring system that uses the brakes for its primary function. As the wheel speed sensors detect slip on the inside front wheel, the braking system builds pressure and applies itself to that wheel, assisting the chassis rotation to dial out understeer. It worked very well and eliminated much of the understeer that plagued and defined its predecessor. With that said, VW isn’t in the business of going backward, so the Mk7 received the updated XDS+ system. Differentiating from the earlier version, the “+” added the XDS control to the rear wheels, enhancing handling characteristics. Combined with the stiffer chassis and Gen 5 Haldex, the XDS+ gave the Mk7 the most balanced Golf chassis to ever hit American shores. 



The interior is where you’ll spend most of your time, so you should prioritize it, although not everyone does. So far, the specs between the Mk7 and Mk6 have been close, and the interior is much of the same story; better in the Mk7 but with the Mk6 not too far behind. Overall refinement can be a theme when looking at the two together, and its shows Volkswagen genuinely put the time into improving its product. 

Volkswagen Mk6 Golf R Interior

Both models use an upscale version of the GTI’s trimmings with unique accents and a few exclusive parts. Starting with the upholstery, you were allowed any fabric as long as it was black leather. It wrapped the steering wheel, seats, shift knob, and touchpoints on the door cards. A grey “R” logo is embroidered into the front seat of both generations, though the Mk6 has it in the headrest while the Mk7 has it in the seat back. In both cars, the grey thread matches the seat, shifter, and steering wheel stitching. The rest of the trim is pretty similar but has some distinct differences. The sea of black, soft-touch plastic that is the Mk6’s dashboard is broken up on the Mk7 with piano black trim surrounding the shifter, radio, and instrument cluster. 

Speaking of instrument clusters, the Mk6 and early Mk7 have analog dials with accenting blue needles, so you never forget what you’re driving. However, the later Mk7.5 uses a fully digital screen for all gauge functions. Screens in the earlier cars are resigned to the infotainment system only. The Mk6 makes do with a relatively small touchscreen with iPod/iPhone connectivity, but not Apple Car Play; that’s a bit before the Mk6’s time. The Mk7 received 3 screens: a 5.8” for 2015 only, a 6.5” for 2016-2017, and an 8” for the Mk7.5. Only the latter two screens received Apple Car Play and Android Auto, but all had navigation as an optional extra. 

Volkswagen Mk7.5 Golf R Dashboard

The two generation’s largest equipment differences come from standard equipment. Both come with adaptive xenon headlights, LED daytime running lights, dual-zone climate control, sport seats, heated mirrors, Bluetooth phone/audio connectivity, and an eight-speaker CD player with a media device input. However, the Mk7’s lights and dual-zone climate control are automatic, and the front seats use power adjustment. On top of that, the later generation has keyless entry and start, selectable drive modes, and a rearview camera as standard. The later Mk7.5s added adaptive LED headlights and taillights, DCC adaptive suspension, start/stop functions, and 19” wheels. Not to mention the host of safety features, including front and rear parking sensors, forward collision warning and mitigation, pedestrian detection, blind-spot monitoring with rear cross-traffic alert, a lane departure warning system, automatic high beams, and adaptive cruise control.

Optional on the Mk6 were a sunroof, keyless ignition/entry, a premium audio system, and a navigation system. The navigation system was again optional on the Mk7, but it was available in an options package that included 19-inch wheels, front and rear parking sensors, a driver-selectable adaptive suspension, a navigation system, and a Fender premium audio system. 

While not just more comfortable on the eyes, the Mk7 is roomier inside, too. The Mk7 is a larger car, two inches longer and a half inch wider, so its interior space is larger. Rear seat passengers have an added 15mm of legroom over the Mk6, while the front and rear have about 30mm more shoulder room.



If you’ve come this far without determining which model you’d prefer, allow money to help you decide. The Mk6, Mk7, and Mk7.5 offer varying degrees of power, sportiness, and comfort in the Golf R range, thanks to their production years and standard equipment range. Because of that, it’s easy to find the two (two and a half?) generations over a wide range of prices. 

Volkswagen Mk7.5 Golf R

The top of the pricing ladder sits very comfortably at the $45,000 mark. At that level sits the lowest mileage Mk7.5 examples, either with or without modifications. Those examples will have some warranty life and well under 30,000 miles. They’re a safe bet for anyone with the money, although some owners have reported Haldex trouble around that mileage. Before purchasing, have the selling dealer or a local independent shop thoroughly inspect it.

Between $40,000 and $30,000 is the meat of the Mk7 and Mk7.5 range. Sub-30,000-mile Mk7s sit at the higher end of the spectrum alongside Mk7.5s with around 40,000 miles on them. As the prices get lower, the mileage goes up, as does the number of modified examples. Modifications aren’t necessarily bad ⁠—plenty of owners have improved their cars with software and parts from reputable companies⁠—but you need to be aware that they typically signal an aggressive past owner. Those examples should be carefully examined as excessive wear likely took place.

Volkswagen Mk7.5 Golf R Rear

At about $25,000, the most-expensive Mk6 Golf R comes into play. Its relative age and lack of tech are likely the reasoning behind that, but its performance capabilities shouldn’t be overlooked. Their mileage will vary, but sub-80,000-mile examples aren’t difficult to find. In this case, find the best one you can with a complete ownership history. That doesn’t mean the lowest mileage example⁠—plenty of owners can screw up an engine and driveline components in hundreds of miles, not thousands⁠—but one with service records, low ownership numbers, and minimal aftermarket components. Though, for about the same price point, you can have a high-mileage Mk7. $20,000 is about where they bottom out and should have between 80-100,000-miles on them. They’re about as common as the sub-80K mile Mk6, too, making for an interesting choice. 

If you’re looking for something below five figures, I suggest looking at a GTI or an older WRX if boost and AWD are a necessity. The cheapest Mk6 Rs have asking prices around the $15,000 mark and typically around 110,000 miles, plus or minus 15,000. Those aren’t bad buys and could be a diamond in the rough, but you must stick to the above principles. It’s easy to get ripped off on older performance machines, and no one wants that. 


At the end of the day, both the Mk7 and Mk6 Golf R can make for exciting and capable daily drivers, high-horsepower sleepers, or reliable and surprisingly quick track day machines. We here at FCP Euro have more than a little experience with the Golf platform and cannot sing its praise loud enough. Whatever you decide on, you know where to come for the best quality auto parts and technical support. So what’s it going to be?

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Written by :
Christian Schaefer

Car and motorsports-obsessed writer/editor for FCP Euro's DIY Blog. Constantly dreaming of competing behind the wheel or searching for another project. Owner of a turbo Subaru Forester and a ratty Porsche 914, neither of which are running.

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